The Alliance maintains a growing library of resources on climate finance and sustainability risk management. Our Reports & Fact publication library provides cross-cutting knowledge, tools, and business information to empower financial institutions to develop green finance roadmaps. 


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  • Biodiversity Finance Reference Guide

    November 07, 2022

    There is a growing recognition of the need to transition to sustainable business models that protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. Finance and innovative financial solutions are key to supporting this transition; and biodiversity finance has emerged as a fast-growing area in green finance with increased interest from investors, financial institutions, and issuers globally. Currently, however, there is no guidance in the market on project eligibility criteria for biodiversity finance. To address this gap, IFC has developed a Biodiversity Finance Reference Guide. This guide builds the Green Bond Principles and the Green Loan Principles and provides an indicative list of investment projects, activities, and components that help protect, maintain, or enhance biodiversity and ecosystem services, as well as promote the sustainable management of natural resources.

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  • Country Climate and Development Reports (CCDRs)

    November 03, 2022

    The World Bank Group’s Country Climate and Development Reports (CCDRs) are new core diagnostic reports that integrate climate change and development considerations. CCDRs build on data and rigorous research and identify main pathways to reduce GHG emissions and climate vulnerabilities, including the costs and challenges as well as benefits and opportunities from doing so. As public documents, the reports inform platforms for governments, their citizens, the private sector, and partners to engage on the development and climate agenda, supported by better coordination at the country level. ​CCDRs can also signal high-impact actions that may attract funding from concessional and commercial financing from development financiers, including non-traditional donors, and the private sector.

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  • Adapting to Natural Disasters in Africa: What’s in it for the Private Sector?

    November 01, 2022

    While climate change causes many types of natural disasters, including biodiversity loss, landslides and wildfires in Africa, this study focuses on the most frequent and economically damaging to infrastructure and livelihoods, namely floods and droughts. Among the 43 African countries analyzed, all of which experienced at least one drought or flood since 1990, the study finds that there are up to $100 billion in total in potential upfront adaptation investment opportunities, or $5 billion a year, between now and 2040. This is an upper-bound estimate, contingent on the investment being commercially viable with the necessary technologies available and a favorable investment climate.

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  • Aggregate Trends of Climate Finance Provided and Mobilised by Developed Countries in 2013-2020

    July 29, 2022

    This report is the OECD’s fifth annual assessment of progress towards the UNFCCC goal. As a continuous progress analysis of global climate finance developments, this report presents the evolution of total annual levels of climate finance provided and mobilised by developed countries for developing countries over 2013-2020. For 2016-2020, it includes an overview by climate theme, sector, financial instrument and regions.

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    July 19, 2022

    The Common Principles for Climate Mitigation Finance Tracking consist of a set of definitions and guidelines and a list of eligible activities that allow for consistent accounting and reporting of financial flows for climate change mitigation finance.

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  • Emerging Market Green Bonds

    June 09, 2022

    In 2021, the volume of green bond issuance in emerging markets more than doubled to a record US$95 billion from US$41 billion in 2020. In all, 35 emerging markets and developing economies (EMDEs) issued green bonds in 2021, including seven new entrants. The fourth edition of IFC and Amundi’s Emerging Market Green Bonds Report provides a detailed update of developments in green bonds issued in EMDEs and the outlook for the coming year. For the first time, it includes a focus on social, sustainability, and sustainability-linked bonds issued in these countries. The report also looks at the need for EMDEs to scale up investments in climate adaptation and discusses global policy initiatives, including those announced at the 26th United Nations Climate Change Conference of the Parties. A final section looks at the “greening” of debt restructuring, which allows countries whose debt is unsustainable to direct capital toward green and sustainable investment.

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  • Climate Risk - Definitions, Measurement, Current Practices and Regulatory Oversight (June 2022)

    June 07, 2022

    This Alliance's thought leadership paper provides a primer on climate risk and its broad reverberations in the financial services industry. It offers a curated overview of the effects of climate risk on financial institutions and financial markets, discusses new techniques developed to measure climate risk, and explores the evolving practices of financial institutions in tackling it, as well as the related regulatory initiatives.

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  • Green Bond Handbook: A Step-By-Step Guide to Issuing a Green Bond

    March 30, 2022

    This Handbook aims to provide practical and straightforward guidance for financial institutions in emerging markets to prepare and execute a successful green bond issue. The Handbook has been compiled by market practitioners with deep practical experience of working with issuers and investors and will be updated periodically to reflect innovation in practice in the Green Bond market.

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  • Guidelines for Blue Finance

    January 28, 2022

    Blue Finance is an emerging area in Climate Finance with increased interest from investors, financial institutions, and issuers globally. It offers tremendous opportunities and helps address pressing challenges by contributing to economic growth, improved livelihood, and the health of marine ecosystems. This document identifies eligible blue project categories to guide IFC’s investments to support the blue economy, in line with the Green Bond Principles and Green Loan Principles. The market has been seeking guidance on project eligibility criteria, translating general Blue Economy Financing Principles, such as the Sustainable Blue Economy Principles and the Sustainable Ocean Principles, towards guidelines for blue bond issuances and blue lending.

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  • Sustainability-Linked Finance—Mobilizing Capital for Sustainability in Emerging Markets

    January 18, 2022

    Sustainability-linked finance is designed to incentivize the borrower’s achievement of environmental, social, or governance targets through pricing incentives. Launched in 2017, it has now become the fastest-growing sustainable finance instrument, with over $809 billion issued to date in sustainability-linked loans and bonds. Yet these instruments are still nascent in emerging markets, which represent only 5 percent of total issuance to date. This note shares examples of recent sustainability-linked financing, including several involving IFC in various roles, to highlight how investors can utilize these new instruments in emerging markets and mitigate greenwashing risks.

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